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History of Hong Kong
Facts about Hong Kong
Located on the southeast coast of China, Hong Kong consists of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, and the New Territories, with a total area of 1,092 sq km.
Chinese territory since ancient times, Hong Kong had been occupied by Britain after the Opium War in 1840. In 1997, in accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration, the two governments held a hand-over ceremony.
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) of the PRC was formally established and the Basic Law of the HKSAR was adopted in April 1990. The Basic Law makes clear and definite specifications on a high degree of autonomy, and the political, economic, cultural and education systems of the HKSAR. History
According to archaeological studies, human activity on Hong Kong dates back over five millennia. Excavated Neolithic artifacts suggest an influence from northern Chinese stone-age cultures. The territory was settled by Han Chinese during the seventh century, A.D., evidenced by the discovery of an ancient tomb at Lei Cheung Uk in Kowloon. The first major migration from northern China to Hong Kong occurred during the Sung Dynasty (960-1279). The British East India Company made the first successful sea venture to China in 1699, and Hong Kong's trade with British merchants developed rapidly soon after. After the Chinese defeat in the First Opium War (1839-42), Hong Kong was ceded to Britain in 1842 under the Treaty of Nanking. Britain was granted a perpetual lease on the Kowloon Peninsula under the 1860 Convention of Beijing, which formally ended hostilities in the Second Opium War (1856-58). The United Kingdom, concerned that Hong Kong could not be defended unless surrounding areas also were under British control, executed a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898, significantly expanding the size of the Hong Kong colony.
In the late 19th century and early 20th centuries, Hong Kong developed as a warehousing and distribution center for U.K. trade with southern China. After the end of World War II and the communist takeover of Mainland China in 1949, hundreds of thousands of people fled from China to Hong Kong. Hong Kong became an economic success and a manufacturing, commercial, finance, and tourism center. High life expectancy, literacy, per capita income, and other socioeconomic measures attest to Hong Kong's achievements over the last five decades.
On July 1, 1997, China resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, ending more than 150 years of British colonial rule. Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China with a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs. According to the Sino-British Joint Declaration (1984) and the Basic Law, Hong Kong will retain its political, economic, and judicial systems and unique way of life for 50 years after reversion and will continue to participate in international agreements and organizations under the name, "Hong Kong, China."
Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China Geographic coordinates: 22 15 N, 114 10 E Map references: Southeast Asia Area: Total: 1,092 sq km,
Land: 1,042 sq km,
Water: 50 sq km Regional border: China 30 km Coastline: 733 km Climate: subtropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1998 est.) Geography : more than 200 islands Financial year: 1 April - 31 March Intermnational Country code: 852 Internet country code: .hk
Population: 7018636 (July 2008)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 13.5% (male 488,607/female 445,593)
65 years and over: 12.8% (male 413,031/female 477,186) (2006 est.) Median age: Mmale: 40.4 years , Ffemale: 40.9 years (2006 estimation.) Population growth rate: 0.59% (2006 est.) Birth rate: 7.29 births/1,000 population (2006 est.) Death rate: 6.29 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.) Sex ratio:
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.) Life expectancy at birth:
male: 78.9 years ,
female: 84.5 years (2006 est.) Total fertility rate: 0.95 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Nationality: Chinese/Hong Kong HKSAR Flag description: Red with a stylized, white, five-petal bauhinia flower in the center
Economy Hong Kong Languages: Chinese (Cantonese), English; both are official Literacy: Definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school ,
Female: 89.6% (2002)
Ethnic groups: Chinese 95%, other 5% Religions: Mixture of many Religions 90%, Christian 10%
Govt of Hong Kong Country name: Conventional long form: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Conventional short form: Hong Kong Local long form: Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu Local short form: Xianggang Abbreviation: HK Government type: Limited democracy Independence: (Special Administrative Region of China) National holiday: National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); 1 July 1997 is celebrated as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day Constitution: Basic Law, approved in March 1990 by China's National People's Congress, is Hong Kong's "mini-constitution" Legal system: based on English common law
GDP - per capita (PPP): $36,500 (2006 est.) Agriculture - products: fresh vegetables; poultry, pork; fish Industries: Textiles, clothing, tourism, banking, shipping, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks Currency (code): Hong Kong dollar (HKD) Currency code: HKD Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars per US dollar - 7.75 (2009),
Airports: 1 Heliports: 3 Roadways: Total: 1,955 km Ports and terminals: Hong Kong
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